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Ten minutes to understand the machining process

Jun 10, 2020

Planing

The planing process is carried out on a planer. The reciprocating linear motion of the tool during the main cutting motion. Planing is smoother than milling, its machining accuracy is IT8-IT7, surface roughness is Ra6.3-1.6μm, precision planing flatness can reach 0.02/1000, surface roughness is 0.8-0.4μm. The planing speed is not high and the productivity is low.


Grinding Grinding

Grinding is performed on the grinder. The main cutting motion of grinding is the rotation of the grinding wheel, that is, the workpiece is processed with the grinding wheel or other abrasive tools. Grinding processing is stable and high in precision, and usually belongs to the final processing procedure, which can process hardened metal materials. The grinding process of the grinding wheel is actually a comprehensive effect of the three effects of abrasive particles on the cutting, carving and sliding of the workpiece surface. During grinding, the abrasive particles themselves are gradually sharpened from sharp to blunt, making the cutting effect worse and the cutting force larger. When the cutting force exceeds the strength of the adhesive, the blunt abrasive particles fall off, exposing a new layer of abrasive particles, forming the "self-sharpening" of the grinding wheel. However, chips and broken abrasive particles will still block the grinding wheel. Therefore, after grinding for a certain period of time, the grinding wheel needs to be trimmed with a diamond turning tool. Grinding generates a large amount of heat and requires sufficient cutting fluid for cooling. Grinding machine is a finishing machine, the grinding accuracy can reach IT6-IT4, the surface roughness Ra can reach 1.25-0.01μm, or even 0.1-0.008μm.

 

Drilling

Drilling is performed on drilling machines and lathes, and can also be performed on boring or milling machines. The main cutting motion of drilling is the rotation of the drill bit. Drilling is the basic method of hole machining. The machining accuracy of drilling is low, generally only reaching IT10, and the surface roughness is generally 12.5-6.3μm. After drilling, reaming and reaming are often used for semi-finishing and finishing. Drilling is a basic method of hole machining. Drilling is often performed on drilling and lathe machines, and can also be performed on boring or milling machines. The machining accuracy of drilling is low, generally only reaching IT10, and the surface roughness is generally 12.5-6.3μm. After drilling, reaming and reaming are often used for semi-finishing and finishing. The reaming uses a reaming drill, and the reaming hole is processed with a reamer. The reaming accuracy is generally IT9-IT6, and the surface roughness is Ra1.6-0.4μm. When reaming or reaming, the drill bit and reamer generally follow the axis of the original bottom hole, which cannot improve the position accuracy of the hole. Boring can correct the position of the hole.

 

Boring

Boring is performed on a boring machine or a lathe. It is an inner diameter cutting process that uses a tool to enlarge a hole or other circular contours, and its application range is generally from semi-roughing to finishing. Boring can be done on a boring machine. The boring tool is basically the same as the turning tool. The difference is that the workpiece does not move and the boring tool is rotating. The machining accuracy of boring is generally IT9-IT7, and the surface roughness is Ra6.3-0.8mm.

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